The Effects of Implementing a ‘Learning as Making’ Pedagogy on School Mathematics Learning: Primary Students’ Inquiry-based Making with 3D Printing Pens

Principal Investigator. (2019-2021). This design-based research explores the effect of a ‘learning as Making’ pedagogy in mathematics education through designing and implementing a series of teaching experiments in Hong Kong primary schools.

Funded by Research Grant Council (Hong Kong), Early Career Scheme ($499,381 HKD)


  1. Ng, O., & Ye, H. (forthcoming). Doing mathematics with 3D pens: Five years of research on 3D printing integration in mathematics classrooms. In F. Dilling, F. Pielsticker, & I. Witzke (Eds.), International Symposium on 3D Printing in Mathematics Education. Springer.
  2. Ng, O., & Ye, H. (accepted). Mathematics learning as embodied Making: Primary students’ investigation of 3-dimensional geometry with handheld 3d printing technology. Asia Pacific Education Review.
  3. Ng, O., Liang, B., & Leung, A. (accepted). Using first- and second-order models to characterise in-service teachers’ video-aided reflection on teaching and learning mathematics with 3D Pens. In A. Clark-Wilson, O. Robutti, & N. Sinclair (Eds.). The Mathematics Teacher in the Digital Era (2nd Edition). Springer: Cham, Switzerland
  4. Ng, O., & Park, M. (2021). Using an enhanced video-engagement innovation to support STEM teachers’ professional development in technology-based instruction. Educational Technology and Society24(4), 193-204.
  5. Ng, O., & Tsang, W. K. (2021). Constructionist learning in school mathematics: Implications for education in the Fourth Industrial Revolution. ECNU Review of Education.
  6. Ng, O., & Chan, T. (2021). In-service mathematics teachers’ video-based noticing of 3D Printing Pens ‘in action’. British Journal of Educational Technology, 52(2), 751-767.
  7. Ng, O. (2020). How ‘tall’ is the triangle? Constructionist learning of shape and space with 3D Pens. International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology. [Online first]
  8. Ng, O., Shi, L., & Ting, F. (2020). Exploring differences in primary students’ geometry learning outcomes in two technology-enhanced environments: Dynamic geometry and 3D Printing. International Journal of STEM Education. doi: 10.1186/s40594-020-00244-1
  9. 曾詠琪,吳藹藍 (2020). 為三角形「度高」:以3D打印筆進行建構式學習的課堂構思. 數學教育, 43(1), 50-58.

Project details


Schools cooperating with us


Teachers joining lesson
co-planing section


Students participating the lessons

‘Learning as Making’

Hands-on, inquiry-based constructionist mathematics learning with 3D Pens.

Collaborations with 8+ schools

Collaborating with primary and secondary schools in Hong Kong on lesson implementations with ‘learning as Making’ pedagogy and 3D Pens.

Lesson Co-planning with 50+ teachers

Producing professional knowledge through lesson co-planning and developing teaching packages.

Workshops for Maths teachers

Organising school-based workshops with teams of Maths teachers to disseminate research results and share best practices.

6+ classroom teaching experiments, 150+ students

Since project commencement in 2019, 6 classroom teaching experiments had been held in 4 schools (3 primary, 1 secondary) with 155 students. More classroom teaching experiments will be held in the next academic year.

Various Maths topics and grade levels

‘Learning as Making’ lessons covering:
Rhombus (Grade 4), 3D shapes (Grade 5), Area of triangles (Grade 5), Cross-section of 3D shapes (Grade 6), Euler formula and regular polyhedron (Grade 7)

For more on lessons with 3D Pens

Please visit

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